Am J Public Health. 2005 Dec 27.
University of California, San Diego, Naval Health Research Center.
Vitamin D status differs by latitude and race, with residents of the northeastern United
States and individuals with more skin pigmentation being at increased risk of deficiency.
A PubMed database search yielded 63 observational studies of vitamin D status in
relation to cancer risk, including 30 of colon, 13 of breast, 26 of prostate, and 7 of
ovarian cancer, and several that assessed the association of vitamin D receptor genotype
with cancer risk. The majority of studies found a protective relationship between
sufficient vitamin D status and lower risk of cancer. The evidence suggests that efforts
to improve vitamin D status, for example by vitamin D supplementation, could reduce
cancer incidence and mortality at low cost, with few or no adverse effects.