bike75.gif (2872 bytes)


  Latest update: 1/5/2023


The following summary is based on a consensus report of international experts in the field of sport science. It contains 26 key factors that predict high-level endurance performance. This table summarizes these factors.

As would be expected, three measured cardiovascular fitness:

  1. maximum oxygen consumption (i.e., the maximal capacity to take up, transport, and utilize oxygen)
  2. the ability to avoid lactic acidosis
  3. running economy - the volume of oxygen utilized while exercising at a constant speed.
  4. a fourth was the ratio of muscle fiber types (type I and type II) - which is generally genetic but just as with CV factors can shift with long term training.

Psychological factors included motivation, stress resistance, and self-confidence.

Sleep quality and level of fatigue (over reaching in training is significant factor behind poor performance) need to be addressed in any comprehensive training program.

Exposed to constant muscle and tissue damage, the healing function of skeletal and muscle tissue made the list as well as vitamin D deficiency (which can impair healing).

Hydration status and electrolyte balance were key endurance factors making individualized fluid replacement strategies essential to support high-level endurance performance.

The consensus group noted that carbohydrate supplementation, caffeine, post exercise protein ingestion, neuromuscular control, and strategy/decision making were not examined as they had been extensively investigated and were accepted as essential components to achieve high level endurance performance.

Interestingly supplements - specifically magnesium, vitamin C, Vitamin E, Zinc and antioxidants - did not make the list and were felt to be a performance enhancer only in athletes who started off deficient.

All questions and suggestions are appreciated and will be answered.

Cycling Performance Tips
Home | Table of Contents